Tuesday, November 22, 2016

What's the difference between a stagehand and a tech?

Stagehand Versus Tech

Being a stagehand is an honorable way to earn a living. And it's hard work. Loading and unloading trucks, hauling heavy gear, and working long, hard hours can be a physical challenge, but plenty of decent human beings do it for a living. And as long as you take care not to hurt yourself, you can make it a career. But maybe you want more of a mental challenge. Maybe you want better pay, or better working conditions. Maybe you want to be a tech.

A tech is a skilled craftsperson. It's also an honorable way to earn a living, and it can also be hard work, but it's more mental than physical. While a stagehand works with their hands, a tech works with their head and their hands. A stagehand works against gravity while a tech works with technology. 

A stage hand can see their work - sections of truss, spigots, bolts, wrenches...It's not hard to figure out how to properly assemble sections of truss. A tech, on the other hand, knows how to calculate how much dynamic force can be applied to a truss before it's too much. 

A stage hand can look at a male and a female Edison connector and see that they can be mated. A tech understands how to calculate the load current and knows whether or not the cable can supply enough ampacity for the connected load.

How do you become a tech? You read, study, learn, and put into practice what you have learned. There are plenty of options to chart your career, whether it involves university or the school of hard knocks. Either way, it can be challenging, rewarding, and fun.

If you need help deciding which route to take, drop a line.

What's Your Vector Victor?

Remember the cockpit scene from Airport! when they are taking off?

Roger Murdock: We have clearance, Clarence.

Captain Oveur: Roger, Roger. What's our vector, Victor?

Tower voice: Tower's radio clearance, over!

Captain Oveur: That's Clarence Oveur. Over.

Tower voice: Over.

Captain Oveur: Roger.

Roger Murdock: Huh?

Tower voice: Roger, over!

Roger Murdock: What?

Captain Oveur: Huh?

Victor Basta: Who?

It makes more sense if you know that a vector is an arrow that represents the size and direction of a value. For example, if I say I flew 240 miles, I’ve only given you a distance. But if I say I flew 240 miles in the direction of north by northwest, then that can be graphically represented as a vector by drawing an arrow 240 miles long in the direction of travel, which is north by northwest. (Okay, it doesn’t really have to be 240 miles long because we can scale it down.)

Why would anyone use vectors? Because they make it easier to figure out complex problems. For example, suppose we take off from Austin and fly due east for 120 miles. Then we change course and fly north by northwest for 240 miles. Where would we end up? We can use vectors, as shown below, to find out.

The black arrow represents the first leg of the flight, and it’s 120 miles long in the easterly direction. The red arrow represents the second leg of the flight, and it’s 240 miles long in the north by northwest direction. The orange arrow represents where we end up, and it goes from the tail of the black arrow to the head of the red arrow. We can use the Pythagorean theorem to calculate the length of the orange vector. The Pythagorean theorem says that a2 + b2 = c2, where a is 120 and c is 240.

1202 + b2 = 2402

b2 = 2402 - 1202

b2 = 57,600 – 14,400

b = √(43,200)

b = 208

According to our vectors, we ended up 208 miles due north of where we started, so we would be somewhere around Dallas.

How does all of this apply to power distribution? I thought you’d never ask. The answer is right under your nose. Look at the illustration again (below), this time with the values for all three vectors included.

Do those numbers look familiar? They should if you know how a delta-delta connected feeder transformer works. In North America, the phase-to-neutral voltage (represented by the black vector) is 120V, the phase-to-phase voltage (represented by the red vector) is 240V, and the wild leg or high leg (represented by the orange vector) is 208V.


This is but one example of how vectors can be used to help make complex relationships easier to understand. There are many more. For example, why is it that, in North America, the voltage from phase A to neutral is 120V, the voltage from phase B to neutral is 120V, but the voltage from phase A to phase B is 208V and not 240V? You can use vectors to see why. The key is the phase relationship between phase A and B, which are 120° out of phase with each other. Try it, and if you get stuck, send me an email and I’ll send you an illustration.

Wednesday, October 26, 2016

The Best Product at LDI 2016?

by Richard Cadena

What was the most interesting product at LDI this year?

That’s often the first question you get when you bump into your friends on the trade show floor at LDI or any other industry trade show. Everyone is looking for that one new light or video idea that, above all the others, really blows your doors off. Everyone is certain that it’s there, but we just haven’t found it yet. Have you seen it?

LDI 2016
LDI 2016 just ended a few days ago, and I didn’t see one thing that amazed me, but almost everything there is truly amazing. What’s happening on trade show floors these days is mind-blowing. Think about it. This industry is taking miniscule diodes that emit enormous amounts of colored light with a tolerance of a few wavelengths. Precision-cut high-tech glass or plastic lenses gather and redirect that light through an impressive train of optics with high-resolution treated glass or stainless-steel gobos and color filters made with incredibly strong glass, and an assortment of effects like precision-controlled framing shutters. The light that comes out of the fixture is actually pulsing hundreds or thousands of times per second—so fast that you’re brain can’t even perceive it—and those pulses are varied in width with such precision that they can fool you into thinking that they can dim as smoothly as the sun rises and sets. Then the whole luminaire assembly is robotically moved with stepper motors or servomotors so accurately that they can target a subject to within a few millimeters at a 30-meter throw. All of this is under the control of extremely small and powerful microcomputers that are programmed to respond to highly sophisticated consoles with hundreds of thousands of lines of computer code that is designed to appease the whims of any user who steps up to the keyboard. These controllers are actually spitting out pulses of voltage every four millionth of a second, and the fixtures can not only distinguish between these voltage pulses, but they can make sense of them and decode their intended meaning. In some cases we’re controlling hundreds of thousands of attributes using a single pair of copper wires, or, even more astonishing, over thin air using wireless control. Then very creative people take dozens and dozens of these devices and hang them on brilliantly designed aluminum structures that can support thousands of pounds, power them using application-specific power and data distribution systems, interconnect them and make them all work correctly in an incredibly short amount of time, and then they make them dance to the music of their imagination, all to the delight of anyone who happens by the aisle. These people come from all corners of the world and they transverse the planet in a matter of hours.


Do you really want to know what I think was the most interesting product at LDI? All of it. Every last bit. It all boggles the mind.

Training Opportunities for Live Event Production Professionals

Sunday, May 22, 2016

Heads!

Your head is worth protecting. Any time there are people working overhead, you should be wearing head protection. You don’t want to catch a shackle or a C-wrench on the cranium dropped from a catwalk or the steel without a good helmet. Any head protection is better than none, but there are certain types of helmets for certain jobs. How do you know which helmet is the right one for the job?
If you’re an electrician, then you should use a helmet that will protect you against the hazard of shock and arc flash. Climbing helmets are often vented, but those vents that make them more comfortable in hot weather make you vulnerable to arc flash. In the event of an arc flash, should you be in the arc flash zone, then those vents could allow your to get second-degree burns on your scalp.
Helmets are classified according to national an international standards, and those designed for electricians should be class E or class G according to ANSI/ISEA Z89.1 and CSA Z94.1. A class G provides dielectric protection for up to 2,200 volts and a class E up to 20,000 volts. For the type of work that you and I typically do, a class G is fine.

I just got a new Petzl Vertex Best for $115 with free shipping on Amazon. It’s complaint with ANSI/ISEA Z89.1-2009 type 1 class E. Type 1 means that it is designed to withstand impact from above, but not from the side. I don’t often find myself in environments where I need head protection with class E compliance, but now I’m prepared just in case.

Saturday, May 14, 2016

What is Eurovision Song Contest?

If you're European, then you need no introduction to the Eurovision Song Contest. Otherwise, you may be unfamiliar with the spectacle that dominates the hearts and minds of 250 million Europeans every year, and has been for 60 years. I could make an attempt to explain it, but words would do it no justice. Instead, check out this video where the hosts sing and dance the best explanation of the phenomenon that one could hope for. The answer to the question "What is Eurovision Song Contest?" starts at 06:15 - Click here. Go ahead and watch it. I'll wait...

Okay, now that you have a better understanding of the show, let's talk about the technology and the art.

Yesterday I had a great conversation with Fredrik J├Ânsson, the lighting designer of ESC. He said he received an AutoCAD drawing of the set from the set designer, imported it into WYSIWYG, simplified it, and designed the lighting around the set. He was thrilled that the drawing he received was super accurate because, for the first time in the history of the show, someone went into the Globen Arena, where the 2016 event is being held, and scanned the venue with a laser to get precise measurements.

The set, he said, was very angular and geometric, with sharp corners. He wanted a simple design with straight lines to make a bold statement. At the same time, he wanted it to be big, like the early heavy metal bands he idolized.

"It was time to incorporate a big-ass lighting rig," he said.

The Globen Arena, he said, is the world's largest spherical arena. It's 80 meters high (about 260 feet) and it's 36 meters to the catwalk (about 120 feet). He said he always wanted to illuminate the globe above the catwalk but he never had a show with the budget...until now. And when he lights it up, it's impressive!

The bulk of the design work, he said, came during a grueling tour he was working on, and it was challenging to meet the deadlines.

"It's not supposed to be easy," he said. And when you see the scope of the work, you can almost feel the heavy burden of hours and hours that must have gone into it.

Once he had a 3D model of the lighting rig, it was then built in MA Lighting 3D software for pre-visualization. Three programmers spent four weeks in the studio, preprogramming the show, and then they spent five weeks in the arena tweaking it.

Each song was cued based on a description sent to Fredrik by the artist. Some of the descriptions were very vague, he said, and others were very detailed. In the end, they had 36 pages of detailed information about the cues.

The entire show is run on time-code with the exception of a small manual desk that Fredrik uses to cue the ring lights on the cameras and the followspots. When you see the show, you understand why it's run on time-code. The action is so fast and furious that no ordinary mortal could possibly cue it in real time. There are lots of cameras, some on Cyberhoists, some on telescoping cranes, some on pedestals, one on motorized dollies, some handheld, and one spider cam. I've never seen a camera crane being swung around so fast in my life. Two people are working it on the floor, and three more in the truck. Even the camera switching is automated, as are the set pieces. The show is choreographed within an inch of its life. And it's all to great effect.

There are 1500 lights in the rig, 1000 of which are automated, and about 80% of those are Clay Paky Sharpy's, Sharpy Wash, Mythos, and Scenios.

"Each act," he said, "has to hand in a document called 'Look and Feel.' It explains what kind of production they like, what kind of atmosphere they want to create and even if there are some colors they don't want to use. Most of the acts also give you 'Mood Boards.' That could be a piece of paper with a photo on it or it could be 36 pages of detailed information on the lighting, video playback and camera angles that they want. We try to take in all that information and see what we can do with it – and of course make them as happy as we can."

Fredrik talked about the TourPro Aquabeams. He said he went to LDI in 2015, and when he walked in, the first thing that caught his attention were the bright, narrow beams shooting across the hall. He followed them to the TourPro booth and learned about the Aquabeams. He said he thinks they will be very popular, especially with festivals because they are IP rated. "I absolutely love them," he said.

He also gave props to Anders Wallertz, who calls the followspots. Anders is old school, having toured with many of the heavy metal bands who inspired Fredrik. He said he is "so happy" with Anders' work because it is "full throttle." "He saves my ass a lot," he said.

Fredrik talked about his choice of color temperature, which is almost tungsten but slightly higher. He said it's a compromise so that he doesn't lose the saturation of the reds and yellows and at the same time, it helps make the pinks and purples pop.

Fredrik talked a lot about his programmers and his assistant, Emma Landare, and for good reason. They are working with over 3000 cues on 13 lighting consoles, grandMA Lites. There are four active plus four backups for the programmers, one active and one backup for followspots (controlling color), one active and one backup for video (controlling media servers), and one portable for programming around the venue.

Tonight is the final show and I'm looking forward to being in the house.






Over/Under or Straight Coils?

by Richard Cadena

I can be such a scatterhead at times. A couple of weeks ago, we were loading out on a gig. As we were picking up all of the cabling and coiling it up, I asked the owner of the equipment if they wanted it coiled over/under or just straight coils. I always ask because people sometimes have strong opinions about that, right or wrong. The answer I received took me by surprise.


"Straight coils," he said. "Over/undering is for A/V cables, not power cables."

The answer stopped me in my tracks. Of course he's right. I must have known that at some point and just forgotten. But why, I wondered, is that the case?

Off to the Internet I went as soon as I got home to research the subject. The short answer is that any cable with a shield (or screen as they say in the UK) should be coiled over/under, and cables without a shield should not. The reason is that over/under maintains the twist of the conductors and retains the weave of the shield.

Over/undering cables is effectively creating a figure eight and folding it in half. If you do that to a power cable, it works against the twist of the individual strands of wire. Power cables should be coiled as if they are going back on the reel from which they came. You can feel the natural lay of the cable as you coil it, although it sometimes takes a gentle twist to wind it or unwind it properly.

Coiling cables properly is such a basic skill, yet it's so important for helping to maintain the gear and prolong its useful life. And while you're coiling it, make sure to visually inspect it for signs of damage, which could be cuts, holes, or cracks in the insulation, abrasions, damaged strain reliefs, broken pins on connectors, broken wires or terminations, or any other damage. Exposed conductors or other damage could be a hazard, and taking it out of service could prevent injury or death.

Thursday, April 14, 2016

Tax Time is the Right Time for Making Money

by Richard Cadena

Don’t work too many hours or you’ll have to pay more taxes.

That’s the narrative that’s been floating around the workforce for longer than I can remember. I was in college the first time I heard it, and I heard it again today from a stagehand. I’ve always wondered about the validity of the idea, but I never gave it too much thought because I assumed that working more hours would pay for the extra taxes and that would always yield more take-home pay. It turns out that, in the United States, we have a progressive tax system that doesn’t penalize you for working more hours, even if that puts you in a higher tax bracket and taxes take a bigger percentage of your paycheck.

In 2015, there were seven tax brackets in the USA, ranging from 10% to 39.6%, and four different filing statuses; Single, Married filing Joint Return & Widower, Married filing Separate Returns, and Head of Household. Suppose, for example, that you’re a single stagehand and you earn $20 per hour. If you work between 462 and 1875 hours of straight time per year, then you’ll fall into the 15% tax bracket. That will happen if you work between nine and 37.5 hours per week for 50 weeks out of the year, and you’ll earn between $9000 and $37,450 annually if you work no overtime.

But suppose you work just three more hours. Those three hours of pay will put your earnings beyond the $37,450 barrier, and you’ll jump from the 15% tax bracket to the 25% bracket. But it’s a progressive tax, meaning that you’ll pay 10% on the first $9,225, 15% on the portion between $9,225 and $37,450 and 25% on the portion over $37,450. It works out to an increase of only $7. That should make you feel good, not bad, about breaking into the next tax bracket. You’re contributing to society and your take-home pay has gone up, not down, as some people might have you believe.

Still, it’s a good idea to maximize your deductions and minimize your tax bill. Deductions were put in place for you to legally take advantage of tax breaks, so you might as well use them when you can.
If you itemize your deductions, you might be able to save or spend your way down to a lower tax bracket. If you take a look at the IRS 1040 tax form, you’ll notice that your taxable income excludes, among other things, contributions to a health savings account (HSA) or a traditional IRA (individual retirement arrangement). So, if you haven’t already maxed out your contributions, then you might be able to make a strategic contribution to reduce your tax bill.

It’s a good idea, for example, to max out your contributions to an IRA,which, in 2015, was $5500. It will reduce your taxable income and your savings will grow tax-free until you start making withdrawals.

You can also lower your tax bill by buying job-related gear or investing in your education. If you have deductions in excess of the standard deductions ($6,300 for Single or Married filing separately; $12,600 for Married filing jointly or Qualifying widow/widower; $9,250 for Head of household), then you can take deductions on certain job-related expenditures, like tools, software, classes or workshops, or even travel to trade shows. Suppose, for example, that you use a computer exclusively for your work and you buy a new laptop. Then you’ve legally gotten the US government to subsidize your laptop. It’s completely legal, ethical, and moral. Have you been eying a new multimeter? Get a really nice and expensive one and let Uncle Sam help you pay for it. And throw in some training at LDI while you’re at it. It’s almost like printing money.

I’m not an accountant, and I don’t pretend to know the tax code any better than the average stagehand, so don’t take this as gospel. Go to a reputable accountant and make sure you’re making the right tax moves. A good accountant will cost you a few hundred dollars, but it’s tax deductible and it just might put you in a better tax bracket.